"Natural Healing with Herbs for a Healthier You"
THE BENEFITS OF THE USE OF APPLES
IN HERBAL PREPARATIONS
CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS OF APPLES
The main constituents that contribute to the apples vast usefulness and great taste are hard to narrow down. Over twenty have been documented in the unpeeled fruit alone to contribute a vast amount of biological activities. Those with known biological activities located in either the fruit or peel or both are: Alpha-Linolenic-Acid, Asparagine, D-Categin, Isoqurctrin, Hyperoside, Ferulic-Acid, Farnesene, Neoxathin, Phosphatidyl-Choline, Reynoutrin, Sinapic-Acid, Caffeic-Acid, Chlorogenic-Acid, P-Hydroxy-Benzoic-Acid, P-Coumaric-Acid, Avicularin, Lutein, Quercitin, Rutin, Ursolic-Acid, Protocatechuic-Acid, and Silver. From Dr. James Duke’s Phytochemical and Ethnobotanical Database website, we find that in addition to these phytochemicals the whole fruit contains many more for which the biological activity is not yet known. Many of the benefits of the apple come from enzymes and flavinoids.
The “Nutrition Almanac” by Lavon J. Dunne gives us further nutritional information on the apple. In one medium apple weighing about five ounces we find the following constituents of vitamins and minerals; Vitamin A, B1, B2, and B6, Niacin, Pantothenic acid, Folic acid, Vitamin C and Vitamin E, Calcium, Copper, Iron, Magnesium, Manganese, Phosphorus, Pottassium, Selenium, Sodium, and Zinc. The fats in the apple contain no cholesterol. Instead they are a blend of lipids, saturated, unsaturated and monounsaturated fats. In addition to fats the apple contains the other macronutrients of proteins, and carbohydrates. Other phytochemicals include; Tryptophan, Threonine, Isoleucine, Leucine, Lycine, Methionine, Cystine, Phenylalanine, Tyrosine, Valine, Argenine, Histidine, Alanine, Aspartic Acid, Glutamic Acid, Glycine, Proline, and Serine. Trace amounts of Boron and Cobalt are found in apples.
There are four to five grams of soluble and insoluble fiber per apple. This fiber is from cellulose, pectin and lignin. The sugars of fructose and sucrose make up about 9% to 12% of the fruit and give it its sweet taste, while the tartness comes from the malic, tartaric, and citric acids. The tannins, making up 0.2%, give it an astringent cooling and thirstquenching effect. Finally, Amygdaline, a naturally occurring cyanide is found in the seeds.
by Anna Lovett-Brown